Why are Heat Loss and Heat Gain Calculations Important?
Achieving occupant satisfaction is the principal goal of any HVAC design. Primary factors impacting occupant satisfaction include: filtration, temperature and humidity control, air motion in the room, adequate ventilation, interior zoning needs and energy efficient operation. Occupant satisfaction is maximized when the heating and cooling system and equipment are the correct type and size and the air distribution system is properly designed and installed. For residential applications, ACCA’s Manual J, Eighth Edition (MJ8™) is the only procedure recognized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and specifically required by residential building codes. Methods not based on actual construction details, nor founded on relevant physical laws and engineering principles, are unlikely to result in correct equipment sizing.
Problems with Oversized Equipment
Oversized equipment results in marginal part load temperature control. While the temperature control at the thermostat may be satisfactory, equipment cycling may cause noticeable temperature swings in other rooms and larger temperature differences between rooms. Oversized equipment may cause degraded humidity control and increase the potential for mold growth, allergic reactions and respiratory problems. In these unfavorable conditions, occupants may experience additional discomfort and dissatisfaction. Other negative effects are higher installed costs, increased operating expenses, and increased maintenance costs. Furthermore, oversized equipment generally requires larger ducts, poses additional requirements on the power grid and may lead to more service calls.
Reasons for Oversized Equipment
Three main reasons for oversized equipment are: (1) a guess is made on the load; (2) mistakes are made in the load calculation; (3) the equipment is selected for either unusual/extreme conditions such as abnormal temperatures or unusual occupancy loads (i.e. gatherings/parties). Other reasons include the use of inappropriate and inadequate “rules of thumb” such as ‘500ft2/ton’, ‘400CFM/ton’, or ‘total cooling capacity = 1.3 x sensible cooling capacity’. Furthermore, seemingly trivial mistakes such as ignoring building efficiency upgrades and assuming that the original design and installation are correct, all contribute towards inappropriate equipment sizing.
Manual J® Verification
While it is not practical to verify every aspect of a submitted MJ8 calculation, it is a good practice to review key elements that indicate general integrity of the calculations i.e. the contractor has made a good faith effort to provide reasonably accurate loads.
High Impact on Load
Design Temperatures (Indoor and Outdoor)
Windows, Glass Doors and Large Skylights (shading, overhangs, etc.)
Ducts (location, leakage and duct wall R-values)
Ceilings under an attic (R-values, roof material, roof color)
Medium Impact on Load
Low Impact on Load
Appropriately Insulated Floors
Appropriately Insulated Walls
A Note on Understanding the Design Process
Manual J allows contractors to perform a load calculation on a residential building/home. Apart from the load calculation being performed, the ducts must be sized and the correct size equipment must be selected. ANSI-recognized ACCA Manual D® for duct sizing and ACCA Manual S® for residential equipment selection provide guidance here.